Photovoltaics is the
conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, which takes place due to the
photovoltaic effect. This occurs in the silicon semiconductor layers of
photovoltaic panels, similar in shape to the solar collector. An alternative to
monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon is the so-called Thin-films based on
chemical compounds (eg CdTe - Cadmium Telluride or CIS - Copper Indium
Diselenide) which are applied in one or more layers to a substrate made
principally of plastic. However, they are used minimally in Slovakia.
- Photovoltaics is one of
the renewable energy sources and works only thanks to the radiation from the
Sun, which will be available to us in the next 5-8 billion years.
- Photovoltaics reduces dependence
on electricity produced from nuclear power plants or the need to build additional
coal-fired power plants that negatively affect the health of us all. It is a
suitable technology for local electricity production, without the need for long
- The technology works
mostly based on silicon, which is one of the most widespread elements on earth.
- The energy consumed in
the production of one photovoltaic panel is produced in a little over a year,
so this is the time it takes for a photovoltaic panel to produce as much
electricity as has been invested in it.
- For small
installations, it is possible to adapt the project to the appearance of the
facade or house, so it is not necessary to look for a special place for
- Electricity generation
does not generate greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2) or other hazardous pollutants.
This is noiseless production.
- The system can be
relatively easily enlarged or reduced, i.e. flexibly responding to the needs of
users, due to changes in electricity consumption.
photovoltaic panels are connected to each other in rows, and several rows thus
form a photovoltaic generator. Photovoltaic generators can be placed on roofs,
building facades, or installed directly on the ground. In principle, we
distinguish between two types of generator connections:
Network systems whose
part of the electricity production is transferred to the public electricity
network often at a pre-agreed purchase price or market price (depending on the
applicable legislation). Increasingly, the so-called net-metering, i.e. the
credit system of produced and consumed electricity. A kind of superstructure of
the network system is a system whose entire production is consumed by the manufacturer,
and nothing is transferred to the network.
Island systems are
systems directly connected to the appliance (e.g. the whole house). In this
case, both the photovoltaic generator and the appliance are galvanically
separated from the distribution system. Often, non-real-time electricity is
backed up by batteries.
- Solar energy is free
and available everywhere in the world. In addition, photovoltaics is one of the
most environmentally friendly ways of producing electricity (measured by carbon
footprint and energy return).
- With a proper
assessment of the installation site and design recommendations, this is an
investment with low risk and a certain return.
- Photovoltaics is
affordable and currently, without any subsidies, the return on investment in
Slovakia is in the range of 6-10 years.
- Photovoltaics require
minimal maintenance and technological components are highly reliable with a
long technical life.
- When using
photovoltaics, you become a producer of electricity and contribute to the
decarbonization of the Slovak energy mix.
- The efficient use of
photovoltaic energy significantly increases your energy independence and
reduces the negative effects of energy crises.